什麼是設計

 

「我最喜歡設計了!」「我要當一個設計師!」

 

究竟設計是什麼,又該怎麼定義它呢?

 

簡單來說,設計是一種有目的的創作行為。藝術家創作自己感動的作品、設計師創造令使用者感動的作品。

 

進階解釋,設計是一種有邏輯的創新思考方式。設計師考慮各種情報資訊後,針對人們的需求逐步分析、探索,再運用獨特的美感詮釋理念,成就令人動容的創作。

 

在設計思考的基礎下,設計因為掌握的傳達媒介和目標對象不同,分成許多種類。如以立體物件為主的產品設計、工業設計;熟悉空間和都市規劃的建築設計與室內設計;運用視覺圖像傳達訊息理念的平面設計或商業設計;研究電腦動畫和利用電腦與使用者產生互動的數位媒體設計,還有以無形的服務體驗為主的服務設計...等。

 

以工業設計師為例,我們以人為本地思考使用者需求,創造數以百計的大眾消費產品,舉凡桌椅家具、音響電腦、牙刷、手機、摩托車等,都是工業設計師在生產現限制範圍內精心規劃出的作品,能幫助人們獲得更好的產品功能或豐富美感生活。

 

德國百靈牌的首席設計師 Dieter Rams 認為,好的設計具備十項重點:

創新 Good design is Innovative

The possibilities for innovation are not, by any means, exhausted. Technological development is always offering new opportunities for innovative design. But innovative design always develops in tandem with innovative technology, and can never be an end in itself. 

實用 Good design makes a product useful

 

A product is bought to be used. It has to satisfy certain criteria, not only functional, but also psychological and aesthetic. Good design emphasizes the usefulness of a product whilst disregarding anything that could possibly detract from it. 

美感 Good design is aesthetic

 

The aesthetic quality of a product is integral to its usefulness because products we use every day affect our person and our well-being. But only well-executed objects can be beautiful.

易懂 Good design makes a product understandable

It clarifies the product’s structure. Better still, it can make the product talk. At best, it is self-explanatory.

低調 Good design is unobtrusive

Products fulfilling a purpose are like tools. They are neither decorative objects nor works of art. Their design should therefore be both neutral and restrained, to leave room for the user’s self-expression.

誠實 Good design is honest

It does not make a product seem more innovative, powerful or valuable than it really is. It does not attempt to manipulate the consumer with promises that cannot be kept.

持久 Good design is long-lasting

It avoids being fashionable and therefore never appears antiquated. Unlike fashionable design, it lasts many years – even in today’s throwaway society.

條理 Good design is through

Nothing must be arbitrary or left to chance. Care and accuracy in the design process show respect towards the consumer.

環保 Good design is environmentally friendly

Design makes an important contribution to the preservation of the environment. It conserves resources and minimizes physical and visual pollution throughout the lifecycle of the product.

極簡 Good design is as little design as possible

Less, but better – because it concentrates on the essential aspects, and the products are not burdened with non-essentials. Back to purity, back to simplicity.

 

設計巨擘德國包浩斯學院(Bauhaus)也提出影響設計界甚鉅的三項基本原理

型隨機能 Form follows function

忠於材質 Truth to materials

少極是多 Less is more

 

當然,設計還有許多不同的詮釋方法。我們認為,設計其實一種精神層面的議題,它注重發展程序,讓蘋果電腦那麼地無可取代、讓Google的服務永遠瑤瑤領先、讓我們的產品更有競爭力、讓商品更貼近人心、讓這個世界變得更美好。

 

你心中的設計是什麼呢?